So I was thinking of either a tech, Cultural policy or a new civ's UA that was based on nationalism. Each city conquered would generate double the unhappiness and this extra unhappiness couldn't be eradicated by a courthouse. So if annexing a normal city gives you 3 unhappiness, annexing a city from a civ with Nationalism gives you 6 unhappiness. building a courthouse would give you3 happiness back, but the extra 3 unhappiness would still be there. There could be ways to mitigate this extra unhappiness: courthouses could decrease it, it could naturally decrease over time, it could disappear if relations with the original owner are Neutral or Friendly.
If tech based, it would be activated when a certain tech was completed.
Thoughts? I mainly came up with this because annexing is too easy now that you can buy courthouses; there's no penalty in the long term
I'd rather see it as a social policy in the industrial era or a UA than see it as a tech and even then only if the penalty disappeared over time. Unhappiness is already a pain in dom games without making it more of a pain. I wouldn't like the idea of every civ having it. If a civ is steam rolling another civ its the weaker civ's fault for not building enough military. A game mechanic shouldn't be what slows them down. Besides it'd hurt players more than the AI since the AI gets a bonus to their happiness.
I was thinking about penalties for being in a war for too long or losing a certain amount of units in a war. But the Nationalism track could counteract this.
- every 10 turns at war would cause +1 unhappiness.
- losing 5 military units in a single war would cause +1 unhappiness
- losing 3 civilian units (workers or settlers) causes +1 unhappiness
- every 5 pillaged land tiles done to you would cause -100 immediate gold loss and +2 unhappiness
- every 5 pillaged land tiles you do to a civ would cause +1 happiness while you are at war with them.
Nationalism would help with these war penalties. For Example.
- Now there is only a penalty for war length if you have been at war for 20 turns not 10 and unhappiness produced reduced by half.
- Losing 5 military units would cause -100 gold but +5% attack strength and for every 2 military units are deleted +1 unhappiness
- losing civilian units causes +1 unhappiness to the enemy
- If 3 of your land tiles are pillaged +5% attack strength for as long as you are at war with that civ
- If a civ declares war on you, free great general in the capital, +100% to city combat strength, +10% defense strength and each city you lose you gain 10% defense for all military units. (this would be the final policy in the Nationalism track)
If you need an annex penalty maybe +3 unhappiness generated from annexed or past annexed cities unless a Nationalism policy is adopted but this would cause +1 unhappiness in all homeland cities.
I tend to raze cities anyway. This would just make it even more likely.