That's very cool. Thank you PachaMinnie, I look forward to reading it!
Does anyone else have a write up in mind about any other civ?
I might do England if I have time.
I'd like to do Attila "Scourge of God" and the Huns next. Hopefully early next week.
If you are interested of adding Finland to the - Not in the game yet, but will be discussed... - section, I'd be interested of adding some info about them also
I have a post ready for any info on Scandinavian history, unless you think it'd be better to write them all separately...Whatever's best I'm fine with!
Just wanting to let everyone know that I'll be very busy during April (By May everything should be back to normal though), and I won't be able to be as active as I'd like, but I will keep checking in regularly, and I'm very much looking forward to future history posts too, so keep up the good work my fellow unofficial history teachers! If I can I'll post as well, but I may be too busy the entire month of April.
hi everyone......... my school history is very bad.
Well you've come to the right place then!
Originally Posted by aleajonshon
Do you have any questions on history? And is there a particular civilization that you want to learn more about? We only have info posted on certain civs at the moment, however plenty more civs will be taught about as time passes.
Aloha | Kia Ora | Talofa
Polynesia is not actually a distinct civilization as such, but rather an ethnic group (Polynesian) located in the region of Polynesia, located primarily in the South Pacific Ocean. An easy way to find Polynesia on a map is to take a map of the Pacific. With a ruler, draw a straight line from Hawaii to New Zealand, then from New Zealand to Easter Island and then back to Hawaii. This triangle encompasses the region of Polynesia.
The origins of Polynesians are not known. Most scholars believe that the group originated from Asia, in places such as Taiwan and The Philippines. However, some of the staple Polynesian crops, namely the Kumara or Sweet Potato, have origins in South America, thus leading to confusion, as aspects of the language are very similar to some South-east Asian words.
Despite the vast expanse of ocean, and a lack of navigational equipment, the Polynesians successfully managed to sail to and settle the majority of Pacific islands. Assuming the Asian origins, This image shows the estimated routes taken by Polynesians to settle the region. New Zealand was the last settled island group, they remained unknown until around 900 CE. The bulk of Polynesian navigation was done by the stars, and using birds, to navigate to land and remain on course. Outriggers were the vessel of choice, See here for an image of one. Other ships were used when not exploring; take for example the Maori Waka Taua, or War Canoe. These were used mainly for transporting large numbers of warriors through New Zealand to wage war on other Iwi, or tribes.
Not all Polynesian islands share the same culture. Many of the central ones do, and this is usually attributed to an increased ability to converse and trade due to close proximity. However, the outlying islands all have very unique languages and cultures, here are some main points:
Located in the far East of Polynesia, and today part of Chile, Easter Island is shrouded with mystery. The Easter Island natives, whom were called Rapa Nui, were mostly killed by Spanish, or the smallpox which they brought with them. Much like the people, the native name for the island is Rapa Nui, and the name of their language, now extinct, was also Rapa Nui. However, the first thing most people think of when they think of Easter Island are the huge stone heads, known as Moai. These stone heads were ultimately the downfall of Rapa Nui, as they were carved at quarries inland from the Volcanic rock which comprises most of the island. To transport them to the coast, the Rapa Nui cut down the native palm tree, to use as wheels. The rate at which the island was deforested ended up that the palms became extinct, and the native birds which used them as shelter, soon followed. The tragic fate of Paradise Lost is reflected in the story of Rapa Nui, as warfare, overfishing and cult activity soon turned the islands into a hellish nightmare, and cave systems were used as hidden villages.
New Zealand is the largest group of islands in Polynesia. It was first settled in around 900 CE by a group which later became known as Moriori. These groups lived in small communities dotted through the islands, before the next group, the Maori arrived, and through war exiled them to the Chatham Islands. The Maori people spread throughout New Zealand, developing into several Iwi, or tribes. Maori culture developed into having a Pantheon of gods, mythology and legends, based on their surrounds. The Maori hunted several species to extinction, most notably the Moa. They lived in fortified villages, typically on hills with palisades, known as a Pa. These villages had Kumara fields and had year-round supplies of food. Today, Maori culture is known worldwide largely as a result of the New Zealand rugby team, the All Blacks, who perform a Maori War Dance known as a Haka, designed to intimidate rivals before a battle, which makes the games all the more poignant.
Maori warfare pre-European typically involved a weapon known as a Taiaha. These were large staff, typically with the head either carved out of the wood with a pattern symbolising the spirit, or Wairua of the Taiaha, or with Pounamu, known elsewhere as Jade or Greenstone.
Hawaii was originally largely independent tribes on each of the seven main islands (Ni'ihau, the eighth main island, was considered sacred, and no-one except Kahuna (Priests) were allowed to set foot upon it). This changed when Kamehameha I became ruler of a small kingdom on the Kailua side of the island of Hawai'i (The big island). He conquered the other islands, and established a country. The kingdom of Hawaii remained independent, until the reign of Queen Liliʻuokalani, when Hawaii was invaded by the United States of America, and the Monarchy was subsequently abolished. During the approximately 200 years of Monarchy the kingdom had extensive contact with Europe, and quickly became developed. Hawaiian tradition is largely a tourism attraction today, with Luau and Hula offered on most resorts.
I like this thread, I think I want to teach on World War I. Is that alright?
If I can offer a suggestion, maybe add links to the OP?
Sorry Hawk, but I just must do all of Poland's history. Also sorry to everyone else. I know I am a bit late on this one. Without further ado here is The History Of Poland by PachaMinnie.
Poland is a nation that has constantly been looked over by most nations, used as a scapegoat for failed operations, and double-crossed by it's allies. Her history is great, but her reputation is unfair. This is a nation of great fighters and scientists alike. And it is one nation I am sure you will find worth learning about. I shall divide this history into periods, because that is easier. So HERE WE GOOOOOOOOOOO!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
Yes, Poland isn't just the land of Knights and Kings. It was home to Slavic tribes until it was made a country in 960 A.D.. One of the first known settlements in Poland was the Biskupin. It was a fortified settlement build around 700 B.C. that was built by the Lusatian culture. Interesting no?
Piast Dynasty 966-1385
From there we move on to the Piast Dynasty. Here the nation was founded under the ruler Mieszko I of Poland who was baptized in 966 A.D.. It was here he made Poland's official religion Catholicism. Most of the Population converted without much of a fight. Poland was divided up by King Boleslaw so each of his sons could rule the land in the 12th century. In 1226 Konrad I, one of the regional Dukes, invited the Teutonic Knights to help him fight Baltic Pagans. This led to many centuries of war between the two peoples. In the 13th Century, the fragmented state of Poland was invaded by the Mongolians. At the Battle of Legnica, the Allied forces of Poland where beaten by the Mongolians. However, despite taking cities and winning battles left and right, the Mongolian leader retreated with his army back to Mongolia in hopes he would be elected Grand Khan. He wasn't and died before he could re-invade Poland. Next came King Wladyslaw I the Elbow-high who united the fragmented nation once again under one banner in 1320. His son Casimir the 3rd was one of the Greatest rulers Poland has ever known.
Jagiellon Dynasty 1385-1569
Here Poland and Lithuania formed a Union. This dynasty however was NOT the beginning of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. These to nations formed one of the biggest European Powers for the next four centuries. It was during this dynasty that one of the largest battles of medieval Europe took place. 1410, Battle of Grunwald, The Polish Kingdom and Grandy Duchy of Lithuania won a decisive victory over the invading Teutonic Knights, resulting in around 17,000 combined casualties. Thanks to this Victory, the Polish and Lithuanians where able to expand their kingdoms. Including Control over Bohemia, Prussia, and Hungary. Poland fought the Ottoman Empire and Crimean Tatars a total of 75 times from 1474 to 1569. They also helped their allies Lithuania fight the Grand Duchy of Moscow. Some estimate that the raiding from the Tatars cost one million Polish lives between 1474 and 1694. It was also during this time that Poland was developing as a "free and equal" state. Even allowing religious freedom that was almost unheard of in Poland at the time. Nicolaus Copernicus was born in this time as well. Remember him? The famous Astronomer?
Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth 1569-1795
In 1569 the Union of Lublin established the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth! Oh what FUN! During this time, Poland became a great European Super power and Major Cultural entity, even owning an empire of about one million square kilometers. Here it fought the Russkies, Swedes, Ottomans, and a few minor Cossack Uprisings. In 1648 the Cossack Khemelnytsky Uprising took place. Here the Poles lost the eastern part of Ukraine, which became a dependency of Russia. Afterwards, the Swedish 'Deluge' invasion swept through much of Poland's heart land. Killing about 4 million Polish people. Yeah, by that time's standards that was a big freaking war. However John, or Jan, III Sobieski rose to power. He reastablished the Commonwealth's military prowess. In 1683, Polish forces played a large part in reliving the troops of Vienna and crushing the Ottoman Attack. However, our great king Sobieski was the final King of Poland's golden age. After that, the nation became a constant battle zone. With major Population loss and Economic disaster, she was DOOOOMED. Did I forget to mention the government became very corrupt? Because it did. During the 18th century, the Polish people tried to revive their dying nation. They elected a lover of Catherine the II Stanislaw August Poniatowski. That's a mouth full. He brought on the First Partioning of Poland between Germany, Austria, and Russia. This was bad news bears folks. Then, May 1792, Poland was attacked by Russia. The war was almost over before it began because the lovely king decided he didn't want to fight Russia and just let then partition Poland a 2nd time.Then in 1795, Poland was finally engulfed by its Neighbors, never to see light again until 1918.
The Age of Partitions
The Polish people rebelled against their partitioners many, many times. In 1807 Napoleon of France created the Duchy of Warsaw, a free Polish state, but Poland was once again divided by the Winners of the Napoleonic Wars in 1815. Throughout the period of the partitions, political and cultural repression of the Polish nation led to the organisation of a number of uprisings against the authorities of the occupying Russian, Prussian and Austrian governments. Notable amongst these are the November Uprising of 1830 and January Uprising of 1863, both of which were attempts to free Poland from the rule of tsarist Russia. The November uprising began on 29 November 1830 in Warsaw when, led by Lieutenant Piotr Wysocki, young non-commissioned officers at the Imperial Russian Army's military academy in that city revolted. They were soon joined by large segments of Polish society, and together forced Warsaw's Russian garrison to withdraw north of the city.Over the course of the next seven months, Polish forces successfully defeated the Russian armies of Field Marshal Hans Karl von Diebitsch and a number of other Russian commanders; however, finding themselves in a position unsupported by any other foreign powers, save distant France and the newborn United States, and with Prussia and Austria refusing to allow the import of military supplies through their territories, the Poles accepted that the uprising was doomed to failure. Upon the surrender of Warsaw to General Ivan Paskievich, many Polish troops, feeling they could not go on, withdrew into Germany and there laid down their arms. Poles would have to wait another 32 years for another opportunity to free their homeland.When in January 1863 a new Polish uprising against Russian rule began, it did so as a spontaneous protest by young Poles against conscription into the Imperial Russian Army. However, the insurrectionists, despite being joined by high-ranking Polish-Lithuanian officers and numerous politicians were still severely outnumbered and lacking in foreign support. They were forced to resort to guerrilla warfare tactics and ultimately failed to win any major military victories. Afterwards no major uprising was witnessed in the Russian controlled Congress Poland and Poles resorted instead to fostering economic and cultural self-improvement.Despite the political unrest experienced during the partitions, Poland did benefit from large scale industrialisation and modernisation programs, instituted by the occupying powers, which helped it develop into a more economically coherent and viable entity. This was particularly true in the Greater Poland, Pomerania and Warmia annexed by Prussia (later becoming a part of the German Empire); an area which eventually, thanks largely to the Greater Poland Uprising, was reconstituted as a part of the Second Polish Republic and became one of its most productive regions.
Tune In Next Time for Poland in the 20th Century!
I'm planning on doing that once we have a few more posts up - and hopefully by then we have a third page. With just two pages it seems a little pointless at the moment.
Originally Posted by Pouakai
POLAND IN THE 20TH CENTURY
That's right folks. Here it is. Poland in the 20th century.
Reconstruction of Poland 1918-1939
In Point 13 of Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points, Woodrow Wilson stated Poland should be a free nation and the Other allied powers agreed. In late 1918 Poland was granted independence. However Poland's borders where poorly drawn by the Treaty of Versailles at best. So this lead to a war with Ukraine, Chezchslovakia, 4 wars with Germany, and the Polish-Bolshevik War 1919-1921. The Polish-Bolshevik war was invasion of Ukraine and Poland by Communist Russia and Communist Ukraine. It was intended to open up a bridge to aid German Communist Parties. The war started out bad for our Polish heroes, who where overwhelmed by the Russians time after time. Plus their Ukranian allies had been defeated seven months after the war broke out. This all stopped at the Battle of Warsaw. A large force of reds closed down on the city, now lead by civilian defenders. One would think the battle was over before it began, but it wasn't. Polish forces massacred the Reds, killing 15-25 thousand men and taking 65 more prisioner. After this battle the Polish Eagle became unstoppable. Reaching Kiev and smashing all armies ahead until a peace was made in 1921. In 1926, the May Coup lead by Poland's best General Josef Pilsudski over threw the current government and put him in charge until his death in 1935.
World War 2
The Germans invaded Poland on September 1st at 2 am. They invaded due to a border dispute, you see that wanted the Prussian city of Danzig, but the Poles denied, so a little while later they pretended to be attacked by Poland then sent in 76 divisions to crush the Polish. Poland's war was over by the 28th of the same month. Then Poland was sliced in half by the Soviets and Nazis. During the War, Poland had the 4th largest force, behind the British Americans and Soviets. Polish Pilots got the most kills during the Battle of Britian. Polish forces helped take Monte Cassino in 1944. The Polish-Soviet 1st tank army was renowned for their attacks on Berlin and Warsaw. Polish Airbourne units took part in the battle of Market Garden, they took heavy casualties, but helped British soldiers escape the jaws of German soldiers. Then they where blamed for the defeat, how I hate general Montgomery. The Polish Home Army was the 3rd largest resistence movement during the War. On the 1st of August they began the Warsaw Uprising, because they wanted a free city to show to the Soviets. The 2 month Long battle between Polish Civilizans and German SS began in the entire city being razed to the ground. The Allies wanted to help, but couldn't because the Soviets wouldn't allow them to land their planes in their air bases. The Soviets just watched with popcorn as 19,000 Germans and Poles alike died fighting for this city. Hell, even the Soviets lost 5000. The total body count was, 268,000 people. Plus the ENTIRE city was razed to the ground. Even Patton was in shock at the devastation. The Jews didn't give up either, they rose up in the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising. This was crushed by the Germans and there where very little jews left in the ghettos.
Communist rule in Poland 1945-1989
At the Yalta Conference, the allies gave up Poland. This was considered an act of betrayal by their allies to the Poles. For the next 40 or so years Poland was ruled by the USSR. The Soviets met Armed resistence lead by the Polish unit well into the Fifties. Fun Fact: Poland was considered one of the least represenated states in the USSR. That makes Sense right? One of the largest = one of the least represented. Gotcha. The Solidarity movement began in Poland under Lech Walesa, and soon it spread to topple the Soviet union's eastern bloc in 1989 HUZZAH! Now Poland is free, apart of the G6, EU, UN, and NATO. Now she is FREE!!!!
That's it. That's my Polish history, it's a little late for me so I will do the fun facts tomorrow, Bye bye.
Last edited by PachaMinnie; 04-16-2012 at 01:07 PM.
You weren't in the USSR, so of course you had no representation. Are you asking why you had no say in your own government? Well:
A) you don't think like us
B) you kept trying to leave
C) you weren't close to biggest.
D) were it not for the Pope we would have ruthlessly crushed you all. Thank Catholicism every day of your life.
Why are you saying You. I am not from Poland, nor did I say that I lived there. Believe me I understand why they where one of the least represented. The Poles hated the Russians and the Russians hated the Poles. In terms of the largest Poland was one of the largest puppet states in the Eastern Bloc of Nations. Poland, Ukraine, and Yugoslavia where the largest nations in the Eastern Bloc of Nations.
Originally Posted by Shiav
You said "my polish history"
Originally Posted by PachaMinnie
Ah, you meant largest eastern bloc. Of non Soviet nations I guess, but non-soviet nations don't exactly count now do they? We kept their economies and currencies under management so that they were completely dependant on us, we didn't allow them any sort of economic activity. Essentially we froze their countries for fifty years as a thaw barrier.
Oh, and Tito/Yugoslavia left far earlier than Poland, and are not given nearly as much credit as they deserve for their work in ending our oppression.
Since I was told by Hawk I should I am doing Lithuania. Just say the name, Lithuania. It's nice. Now, Lithuania's history is forgotten amongst the populace. Unless you are from Eastern Europe. It goes hand in hand with Poland, although it isn't as long and there's less Miracles. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:LithuaniaHistory.png This is what is amazing about Lithuania in my opinion. They where that big at an important time in history and now they are a forgotten nation. So to do my part to the history community I must tell you the story of Lithuania.
Chapter One 1230-1569 Lithuania's Medieval History
Lithuania was nothing more than a bunch of fragmented Baltic tribes until the 1230s when a guy named Mindaugas united all the tribes in the area and was crowned the First King of Lithuania on July 6th 1253. His reign was not long however, he was assassinated in 1263. After his death, Lithuanian Pagans began to fight the Teutonic and Livonian Orders. While these battles where happening Lithuania made major land grabs. Their empire soon incorperated some of Poland, Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus. In 1385, The Grand Duke Jogalia accepted Poland's invite to become their king. He then embarked on a journey to convert all of Poland and Lithuania to Christianity, and established a union between the two nations. In fact, Lithuania was one of the last Pagan nations to adopt Christianity in Europe. After two Civil Wars, Vytautas the Great became king in 1392. During his reign, Lithuania reached it's peak of territorial expansion, centralization of the state began, and Lithuanian nobility became more powerful in politics. Thanks to Poland and Lithuania being BFF they defeated the Teutonic Order in Grunwald. After the deaths of both Jogalia and Vytautas, Lithuania tried to break free from their alliance with Poland. However, by the end of the 15th century they had to become even closer as the Grand Duchy of Moscow threated their existence. The two nations even clashed 6 times from 1492-1582. During most of these wars Lithuania became incresingly reliant on Polish aid. This eventually lead to the Polish Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Chapter 2 1569-1918 Polish-Lithuania
The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth was created in 1569. This brought on a new era for both nations, culture, arts, and education all flourished. During the Northern Wars (1655-1661) Lithuanian territory and their economy where both devastated by the Swedish Army. Then, before it could fully recover it was once again ravaged during the Great Northern War (1700-1721). The War, plague, and famine caused 40% of the population. Foreign Powers, especially Russia, became dominant in the domestic politics of the Commonwealth. This lead to the dividing up of the Commonwealth in 1772, 1792, and 1795 by the Ruskies, Prussians, and Hapsburg Austria. Most of Lithuania went to Russia, and after several unsuccessful uprisings in 1831 and 1863 the Tsarist authorities banned Lithuanian Press, closed Culture and education institutions, and made Lithuania apart of a new administrative region called Northwestern Krai. The policies failed however to stop book smugglers and home schooling.
Chapter 3 1918-Present Modern Day Lithuania
After World War 1 Lithuania was granted independence. Their nation had it's fair share of territorial disputes, one of the major ones being Polish occupation of Lithuania's historic capital Vilnius. Lithuania resented Poland and there where no diplomatic relations between both World Wars. The Lithuanian Nationalist Union came to power after a coup d'etat and put Antanas Smetona in charge in 1926. The Soviets gave a break to their old enemies Lithuania and gave them back Vilnius after the Soviet occupation of eastern Poland in 1939. In June 1940 the Soviet Union attacked and Occupied the Baltic states including Lithuania. Then the Soviet Union was attacked by Germany and Germany occupied Lithuania. During the occupation the Germans killed 190,000 Jews (About 91% of the Jewish Community at the time). After the retreat of the German armed forces, the Soviets re-established the annexation of Lithuania in 1944. It followed with massive deportations of citizens to Siberia, complete nationalisation and collectivisation and general sovietization of everyday life. From 1944 to 1952 approximately 100,000 Lithuanian partisans fought a guerrilla war against the Soviet system. An estimated 30,000 partisans and their supporters were killed, and many more were arrested and deported to Siberian gulags. It is estimated that Lithuania lost 780,000 people during World War II. The advent of perestroika and glasnost in the late 1980s allowed the establishment of Sąjūdis, an anti-communist independence movement. After a landslide victory in elections to the Supreme Soviet, members of Sąjūdis proclaimed Lithuania's independence on 11 March 1990, becoming the first Soviet republic to do so. The Soviet Union attempted to suppress the secession by imposing an economic blockade. Soviet troops attacked the Vilnius TV Tower and killed 14 Lithuanian civilians on the night of 13 January 1991. On 31 July 1991 Soviet paramilitaries killed seven Lithuanian border guards on the Belarusian border in what became known as the Medininkai Massacre. On 4 February 1991, Iceland became the first country to recognise Lithuanian independence. After the Soviet August Coup, independent Lithuania received wide official recognition and joined the United Nations on 17 September 1991. The last Soviet troops left Lithuania on 31 August 1993 – even earlier than they departed from East Germany. Lithuania, seeking closer ties with the West, applied for NATO membership in 1994. After a transition from a planned economy to a free market one, Lithuania became a full member of NATO and the European Union in the spring of 2004 and a member of the Schengen Agreement on 21 December 2007.
And That my friends is the history of Lithuania. I hoped you learned something. I know I did.
And fun facts about everyone's favourite ex-KGB, I was in Lithuania at the time. How I got out of the eastern bloc, my friends. Lithuania declared independence and my family and I were officially out.
Also they formed a gigantic human chain that was really cool.
PachaMinnie, you have a Skype address instead of one of the dates, lol.
I do? Where?
Originally Posted by Hawk
At least it appears as a Skype address to me for some reason? Here it is...
Originally Posted by PachaMinnie
That's 1569 A.D. to 1918 A.D. Silly Willy
Originally Posted by Hawk
The Empire of Scythia
Tjis is part 1 of my guide to ancient nations. I figured I might start with Scythia. Then Work down from Dacia then Thrace, Illyria, Macedonia, from them to the Seleucid empire. Then maybe a few kingdoms in that area. So here is Scythia.
The Scythians were an Indo-Aryan people that migrated to the Russian Steppes from Central Asia sometime between 800-600 B.C. They were conquerors believed to have been one of the first peoples to domesticate the horse, and use it effectively in warfare. The Scythians also spread out from Central Asia into India, and are known there as the Indo-Scythians. To the Chinese, they were known as the Sai.Indo-Aryan is a subgroup of the Indo-Iranian language, and the three words that comprise Scythia are believed to originate from Eastern Iranian.Scythian society comprised of networked tribes ruled by local elites. The Scythians interacted with each other as a people, but they were never united under the leadership of any one group or person. They were famous for their archers and horsemanship, and are known to have used barbed arrows. Their value as warriors was significant, and they were often contracted as mercenaries to more "civilized" peoples. Scythian elite were buried in Kurgans, and women are seen to have been given equal rights in Scythian society. It is believed that the Scythian warrior-women are the origins of the Greek tales of Amazons, though the Sarmatians are regarded by Greek writers as being dominated by their women, and are probably the larger influence on Greek myth. Though, being an Iranian people of the Steppes, the Sarmatians were commonly referred to as Scythians for simplicity.The Scythians had no written language, and therefore most of what we know of them is derived from Greek writers and excavations of burial sites. To the Greeks, they were the epitome of barbarism and savagery. Primary contact between the Greeks and the Scythians came through Greek colonies along the northern shores of the Black Sea, where they were effective trade partners, dealing in slaves and other valuable commodities.They first became entangled with the civilized world when they invaded the Median Empire in the 650's B.C. on behalf of Assyria. Their campaigns were so effective that the Scythian, Madius became the Median ruler for some twenty-eight years. In 625 B.C., however, they left the Medes, and whether they did so voluntary or were forced out is unknown. When the Median Empire sacked Assur in 614 B.C., however, the Scythians sided with the Medes and comprised part of the force that sacked Nineveh in 612 B.C. They then returned to the steppes.From the 5th-3rd centuries B.C. the Scythians prospered. Herodotus in his Histories claims that Scythian lands stretched from the Danube River to the lower Don basin. The Scythians acquired their wealth by controlling the northern slave trade.The Scythians seem to disappear from history in the first century B.C. and the Sarmatians, Alans, and Ossetians are believed to have descended from them. Eastern Romans still used Scythia as a term for Eurasian barbarians in general. Descendants of the Scythians united with the Huns during their western migration, and some comprised the forces of Attila the Hun. The Crimean Scythians had a kingdom extending from the lower Dnieper river to the Crimea, but their capital city of Scythian Neapol was destroyed by the Goths in the fifth century A.D.
It still comes up with a Skype address for me...Maybe it's just me?
Originally Posted by PachaMinnie
Thanx for doing a post for Scythia! You are doing quite well with the posts - I'm sorry I'm not posting as regular as I like at the moment.
I claim the Inca though, I really want to do a post on them!
Is someone going to post something on the Aztecs and Mayans soon?
Thracians where a Indo-European peoples who lived in modern day Bulgaria mostly. Despite being labeled as barbarians by the Greeks, these people had an advanced form of Music, Art, poetry, and industry. This being said they did love war above all else. They where also labeled by many as a bunch of drunken war lovers. They where known for their skill and bravery as warriors, and many nations such as Rome and Macedon paid high money for them even though they where liable to switch sides during battle. Women also played an important part in war. Sometimes, Thracian women formed a Fourth Line of battle behind their men and cheered them on during the battle. When Alexander beat the Thracian army most of the men got away, but all of the women where captured. Religion was also important in their society. They believed in The hero. He was the son of Bendis the Mother of Gods and her lover. He protected the world from all evil, and is depicted defeating the enemy often. He seemed fitting for such a warlike people. Finally we come to Warfare. Thracians where known through out the known world for their warfare. They taught the Greeks many hard lessons and forced the Greeks to adapt and make changes to their army. Their signature unit was their peltasts. These men threw Javelins and where also dangerous in hand-to-hand combat. They would chuck their javelins from behind at the Greek Hoplites and soon the hoplites would become disordered, and exhausted. Then the peltasts closed in and killed them. So the Greeks adapted, they made their armor lighter so they could catch those pesky troops, and anti-peltast tactics began to emerge. Despite this, the Greeks where rarely able to beat Thrace. This is the opposite for Alexander, whose cavalry always overcame the Thracian infantry.
By the 5th century, the Thracians where said to have been the second most numerous people on Earth by Herodotus, and potentially the most powerful if not for their lack of Unity. There where large groups of Thracians here and there, such as the Odrysian Kingdom, but most of the Thraicans where just tribes. During this time, Thrace's contact with Greece intensified. Thrace was divided into there "Camps" there was the East, formerly owned by Persia, the Central, and West. A notable ruler in the East named Cersobleptes tried to take over more tribes, but was eventually defeated by Macedonia. The Thracian civilization was not very Urban, in fact their largest city was a village. The Thracians where not big city-builders.
Philip the 2nd of Macedonia took over Thrace in the 4th century B.C. and ruled it for over a century and a half. In 279 B.C. the Gauls advanced into Greece, Macedonia, and Thrace. Macedonia and Greece where able to defeat them but they remained in Thrace until the end of the century. During the Macedonian Wars between Macedonia and Rome, conflict with Thrace was inevitable. After the Macedonian ruling parties began to dissolve so did their hold on Thrace. However after the fall of Macedonia the rule of Thrace was passed over to Rome. This lead to many revolts against the Roman empire, but none where succesful.
Thrace Under Roman Rule
The next century and a half saw the slow development of Thrace into a Roman client state. The Sapaei tribe came to the forefront lead by Rhascuporis the 1st. Then after multiple assassinations along their royal blood line, Rome made Thrace a offical Roman province. It was difficult at first due to the lack of urban areas in Thrace, but soon the Romans where able to get a stable grip on the nation and helped it flourish under their rule. Eventually Thrace was forgotten after the hundred years of Roman and Byzantine influence and rule over the once powerful group of Kingdoms. And that my friends ends the story of the great Thracians, powerful, cultured, and heroic people who used to rule the Baltics. Join us next week for Dacia, and Illyria.
Justinian the Great
Leo I the Thracian
Before I leave I must ask you all one simple question. Why do we learn History?
Last edited by PachaMinnie; 04-18-2012 at 09:54 PM.
Those who forget their history are doomed to repeat it.
I might put that in the first post.
Originally Posted by Shiav
Argh...Double post! :P
By the way, does anyone want to do American history?
(<-- click on me)
Originally Posted by Hawk
Dude, I would do American history but I am very biased at times. Not to mention I am already doing an ancient civilizations run around. I guess any American would do, and anyone that isn't Shiav A former KGB should never do American history. *fact*
Originally Posted by Hawk
Hello friends, today I will be talking about the Illyrians.
Illyrians where a large group of tribes in what is now former-Yugoslavia. Illyrians where known for their piracy in the Adriatic Sea, which caused them to be stomped out by the Romans. The Illyirans however, never had a unified culture. They where mostly many different tribes from many different culture groups. Illyria is just the designation of the roughly defined area in the western Balkans as seen by the Roman perspective, much like the Germanic tribes in Manga Germania.
Kingdoms and Tribes of Illyria
The first known kingdom in Illyria where the Enchele, who settled around the 8th Century B.C.. Many of the Illyrian kingdoms where between 400 BC and 167 BC. This includes Autariatae, who where led by the famous king Pleurias who almost killed the famous Macedonian King Phillip the 2nd and played a minor role against Alexander the Great during the Illyrian revolts. The Kingdom of Ardiaei who are best remembered for piracy and fighting the Autariatae over salt. Their great King Agron was able to make a military power out of the tribe for a short time, but soon the tribe was crushed by the Romans and disappeared by 167 BC, not a very long time after their founding in 230 BC. However, I saved one of the best kingdoms for the last, the Dardani! Yey! The first Dardani king was someone named Bardyllis who lived from 448-358 BC. He took land from Macedonia and killed their current king, Perdiccas lll, then he helped attack the Molossians, but was finally killed in battle against Phillip the 2nd after Phillip declined his offer of peace.
These set of 3 wars where fought between 229 BC, 219 BC, and 168 BC when Rome overran the Illyrian settlements and suppressed the piracy in the area. The 3 wars where fought against 3 separate leaders, the first being Teuta of Illyria. She was the Queen of a growing empire in Illyria called the Ardiaei, remember them? Her war with the Greek colonies lead to attacks on Roman trade routes, the Romans became worried of her power, they took over the southern part of her kingdom and crushed her armies. This marked the first time a Roman fleet moved across the Adriatic sea to invade someone.
The next war was between Demetrius of Pharos. Demetrius betrayed Teuta, then succeded her as ruler of the Ardiaei. The Romans where, at the time, fighting the Gauls and the Second Punic War was beginning, so Demetrius saw this as an opportunity to start the Piracy back up. Demetrius built up a fleet of 90 ships, and prepared for the inevatable Roman invasion while invading and raiding other kingdoms. However, Demetrius divided up his military and the Romans invaded. The Romans crushed the Illyrians and Demetrius fled to Macedonia. He died in 214 BC.
In 169 BC, the Illyrian king Gentius allied himself with the Macedonians. At the time the Macedonians where at war with the Romans. Gentius attacked Roman allies during the war, but was defeated in 168 at Scodra by L. Anicuis Gallus. In 168 BC Illyria was finally taken over by the Romans, and after 100 years of revolts, Illyria was finally made a stable province.
Let me be quite honest here, disscusing all of these empires without covering Rome doesn't feel quite right. No I will not do Rome, I will just give a brief as humanly possible run down on the Romans.
Rome was founded 753 BC and this began the Roman Kingdom, ruled by seven different kings until the Romans over threw the Kings and started the Roman republic. Then Rome began to expand, fighting such nations as Carthage, the Gauls, Illyria, Macedonia, and Greece. Eventually Rome became a power house. Then Julius Ceaser over threw the republic and started the Roman Empire. The Roman empire began to expand the kingdom even more. Then Rome was constantly under attack by Barbarians. These various tribes took over Rome in 476 AD. Thus ended the Romans.
I am entirely sorry to those who wanted to do Rome, I tried to make it as brief as humanly possible, and left a bunch of meat still left to be picked at. So much details left to discover! So get out there and write something on Rome people.
Hey Hawk, can I do some writing on Greece since I am doing like all of the ancient civilizations?
WORLD WAR I
World War I was, obviously, a pretty major war. It was centered mainly in Europe. Fighting began between the two warring factions, The Allies and The Central Powers, on July 28, 1914. The war finally ended officially on November 11, 1918. This is one of the largest-scale wars in recorded history, with over 70 million total military personnel being deployed, 60 million of them Europeans. More than 9 million of these people were killed. It was ultimately the 6th deadliest conflict in history.
The war was triggered on June 28, 1914, with the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria by a Serbian assassin. It resulted in the July Crisis, in which Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia one month after the archduke's death. The two countries had formed alliances previously with countries such as Germany and Italy with Austria-Hungary, and the United Kingdom and France with Russia.
On July 28, 1914, the war began with the Austro-Hungarian invasion of Serbia, in which 265,164 Serbian soldiers alone were killed from that date up until early 1915. This invasion was closely followed by the German invasion of Belgium, Luxembourg, and France, plus a Russian attack on Germany. After the German attack on Paris stopped, The Western Front settled into a long, ever-changing battle of trench warfare, that lasted until 1917. In 1914, the Ottoman Empire joined the war, siding with Austria-Hungary. Bulgaria joined in 1915, and Romania in 1916.
Trench warfare was one of the most significant military advances in WWI. This allowed for great defensive systems, which some armies could not break through for most of the war, due to being outdated. Large advances could be stopped or hindered greatly by barbed wire along the lip of the trench, while artillery like machine guns made crossing open fields very deadly. However, the trenches had their downsides. Mobility was virtually impossible, and many people died on their first day due to sniper-fire. Disease was rampant, including Gangrene and Trench Fever. Lice was a serious infestation, and so were rats and frogs.
Another significant military advance was Poison Gas, which was considered uncivilised up until WWI. The Trench First used it in 1914 in the form of tear gas against the Germans. However, the first poisonous gas came on April 22, 1915, at the Second Battle of Ypres, in the form of chlorine. The effects were severe. Within seconds, the French soldiers bombarded by the gas had their respiratory organs destroyed, and choked to death. The British then took up use of it. The Germans then created a new type of gas, called Mustard Gas. It caused serious blisters both internally and externally, sometimes taking a week or more to kill someone, either from bleeding or the respiratory problems. It also lingered in soil for days.
WELP, I'm tired of typing, more coming soon I guess.
The Kingdom of Macedonia was arguably one of the most important nations in the ancient Kingdom. They built one of the largest empires known to man, spread Hellenistic Civilization across the Middle east and Asia, and after its collapse new important kingdoms formed from the ruins. [ I am talking about Alexander's empire when I say new and important kingdoms formed from its ruins]. The Macedonians themselves where Hellenistic. Some of them even considered themselves to be Greek. The Macedonians had their own customs, language, even their own religion however, so they where a separate nation.
Macedonia's founding is shrouded in myth and legend. From what we can gather, the Macedonians where a bunch of scattered, fragmented tribes until a man named Caranus united the tribes. These tribes where different from all of their neighbors, and did something none of them could do - unite.
The Macedonians where in the worst spot and the best spot. Their area was rich in timber and minerals, but they where bordered by the Warlike Illyrians and Thracians and shunned by the Greeks. When Darius invaded Greece in the 5th Century B.C. the Macedonians where first allied with the Persians, but switched sides due to interest. Here the Macedonians sat, lying in wait, remaining in the background waiting, building their infastructure, and wroking within their borders to bring themselves out of barbarism and into a civilized era. All they needed was a great leader, and this came in the form of Phillip the 2nd.
Philip the 2nd of Macedon was a genius. He was a great politician, commander, and all-around great person. He inherited the Macedonian kingdom from his father, and gave it some reforms. First he lengthened the spears his pikemen used so they would be more effective vs Greek Hoplites, then he reduced their shield size. After that he introduced heavy cavalry into the mix and gave light infantry more of a role. He also made soldering a profession, and not some task that doesn't pay. In fact he paid the soldiers good sums of money and made staying in the army one more year worth while. Thus the Macedonians became better at fighting, because their soldiers where more trained.
He also settled the succession of the kingship. Prior to his reign, since the death of King Archelaus (in 399 BCE) who began the build-up of infrastructure, Macedonia was wracked with civil war as pretender after pretender seized the throne and was cast from it. Tribal chiefs became powerful as the king's waned with the constant changes. Philip, who had been a hostage in Thebes for three years, emerged and quickly solidified his reign by conquering those chiefs, reducing them to local lords, and subduing or driving away the Illyrians, Paeonians, and Thracians who had been plaguing Macedon's borders. Polygamy was lawful for Macedonian kings at that time, and Philip used this extensively to secure his realm. He married an Illyrian princess to gain a lasting peace on that border, then a Macedonian one to quell internal strife. Then he married an Epirote princess to secure his western border. He also established a Greek-style school in his capital for education of noble children- who then also served as informal hostages for the good behavior of their parents. By these methods, and frequent use of his new and improved army, Philip quickly mastered Macedonia.
He then conquered a few towns bordering an area of interest to the Athenians, razing them and selling their people as slaves. Athens did nothing but complain, as it was tied up in the Social War following its defeat in the Peloponnesian War. Philip seized upon this inactivity and sieged Amphipolis (an Athenian colony), then proceeded to take all of modern Greece north of Thermopylae. Thereafter he dealt with a few rebellions and fought the Thracians, conquering them to the Danube, where he destroyed a Scythian army.
These actions in Northern Greece earned him a spot on the Delphic Council, which earned him the hatred of the Greek cities. With all the money he was earning, he used the Greeks as his play things, making them battle each other. This kept them pre-occupied while Philip continued his wars amongest his other enemies. The Greeks hated him so much, they sided with the Persians to take him down, Forcing him to lift his siege of Byzantium, then the Greeks confronted him.
Athens and Thebes had been sworn foes during the Peloponnesian War, at the conclusion of which Thebes had even demanded of the Spartans that Athens be razed and its citizens sold into slavery. The Spartans wisely declined, and that preserved Athens. Now, faced with the Macedonian surge, Thebes and Athens allied with each other to confront Philip at Charonaea in 338.
They lost, and lost heavily. Philip had one half of his phalanx fall back while the other surged forward, creating a gap in his lines- and one in the Allied lines. Through this gap thundered Alexander and the Macedonian Heavy Cavalry. The result- the Theban Sacred Band was annihilated, and the rest of the army thoroughly beaten. Philip was supreme in Greece.
His reign as Hegemon of Greece did not last long. He was assassinated by a Macedonian nobleman in 336 BCE, leaving a 20 year old son to rule his vast realm. This was Alexander III, later known as Alexander the Great.
Alexander brought the empire to new heights. He vanquished the Persians and took them over. He fought the Persians, Greeks, Egyptians, Indians, sieges, storms, assualts, and battles against the harshest enviroments, ranging from the harsh deserts to deep jungles. His exploits could fill up books, and books, and books, he has inspired so many greats after him, he never even lost a battle. Could some of his victories be contributed to luck or good subordinate commanders? Yes, of course. However, none can deny his generalship, ability to read the battlefield, his perfect timing, his charisma, his ability to inspire the troops, he truly earned the title "Great".
He was not to live forever, nor his empire. He died of sickness after living in Babylon without a soul to conquer. At this point in his life he was a drunk. He killed one of his best friends after a drunken fit of rage. He was pronounced dead 323 BC and the exact moment he took his final breath was the exact time his empire fell apart. His generals now argued over who should rule, and this lead to the split of his empire.
We shall cover the various kingdoms that became of Alexander's empire, and the fall of mighty Macedonia next time. For now I must say good night.
Last edited by PachaMinnie; 04-19-2012 at 10:18 PM.
I think somebody has an affinity for the Balkans.
Awesome! There seems to be new posts every time I log in now...
Don't worry, I will be posting more stuff myself - just not for a little while.
And yes, anyone can write history for any civ they like, as long as it's accurate and put in a simple fashion, and hopefully enjoyable to read.
I was born in the Balkans, 3 of my Heroes come from the Balkans, My favorite nation of all time is located in the Balkans, the Balkans are amazing.
Originally Posted by Shiav
Edit: I consider myself to be from the US but I was born in the Balkans.
I was born in hell frozen over, I lived my life in hell frozen over, and in my will it stipulates that my remains must be buried in hell frozen over.
Originally Posted by PachaMinnie
And yet, of my top five favourite people, only one of them is from hell frozen over. Discounting my family for mushiness' sake of course.
Some people are different I suppose. You lived in your hell frozen over for years, I lived in my homeland for 5 days. I love the area because it makes me feel better about not living there. Mihajlo Apostolski, Alexander the Great, Phillip the 2nd, these great men are my heroes. Mihajilo is what I have always wanted to be, he has accomplished everything I have wanted to. Alexander and Philip lead Macedonia across Persia, Greece, and countless other enemies and rested, comfortable with their empire. I bring the history of the Balkans close so I can feel better about being so far away in a nation I don't like very much.
Originally Posted by Shiav
Guess what nation I am from.
Originally Posted by PachaMinnie
I supposed my son probably feels the same. He was just a baby when we left. Having fully lived through and got to experience a home, although I do occasionally miss it, takes away most of that feeling.